Tuesday, October 17, 2017

Gender Bias in Medical Research: How It Operates and Why It Matters

Inline_Gender_Bias_ResearchSome months ago the issue of gender bias in medical research came up on the comment board. It was certainly an issue I’d occasionally read about. But I’m also a proponent of lifestyle design and intervention. I don’t spend as much time as others on the nitty-gritty of medical treatment for good reason, but the conversation got me thinking. Maybe it was time for an article after all….

And, so, the questions started coming. How does gender figure into medicine, and what exactly is gender bias in this context? How does it operate? How has it been measured? What consequences are there? How much should it influence our trust in medical literature and subsequent recommendations—the validity of findings, the efficacy of treatment, the safety of drug prescriptions? And, finally, what if any progress are we making or can we count on in the near future?

That Was Then, This Is Now: The Beginnings of Gender Bias 

Bias is a form of systematic error that influences scientific investigations and distorts the findings. Bias will always be present in some form during a study, but the goal is to minimize it to the point where the results can still be trusted. Gender bias, then, refers to errors that arise due to differences between male and female participants or target subjects.

Way back when, gender bias was rife in the medical community. Up until the late 19th century, women were commonly diagnosed with “hysteria,” a (very convenient) condition to imply emotional instability was at the core of any complaints, particularly when related to the female reproductive organs. Thus, where medical practitioners were faced with female patients they couldn’t (or couldn’t be bothered to) diagnose, it was accepted practice to chalk it up to her mental state. Surprisingly, this medical mindset remained entrenched up until at least the 1970s, where a 1972 textbook titled Gynecology and Obstetrics, Current Diagnosis and Treatment suggested that nausea during pregnancy was the result of resentment and ambivalence towards childbearing.

In response, legislation was passed in the same decade to prevent gender discrimination in research in an attempt to ensure studies included box sexes and thereby maintained “equality.” Despite this, the emotional and cultural misconceptions that had skewed female-related medical research and treatment for centuries remained very much entrenched, while women were still regularly left out of trials for fears of pregnancy-related complications…despite the fact that drugs were still being administered to pregnant and breastfeeding women.

Then in 1994, there came the big break that gender-aware researchers had been hoping for. The U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) issued a guideline for the study of gender differences in clinical trials to ensure those drugs were suitable for both sexes.

The guideline addressed the exclusion of women from trials based on unfounded safety reasons, forcing researchers to consider the fact that men and women can have very different responses to the same drug. As a result, an estimated 80% of prescription drugs were withdrawn from the US market due to newly uncovered women’s health issues.

These days, there’s more women than men enrolled in clinical trials. Nonetheless, to some extent gender bias continues to underpin many aspects of medical research.

An Issue of Equality and Inequality

So, what are the different forms of gender bias still prevalent in today’s medical research realm? Let’s dig in here….

A Swedish study conducted from 1997 to 1999 sought to uncover the reasons behind why researchers excluded women from clinical trials. Based on 26 different case studies, they determined that the reasons behind these exclusions were:

  • lack of knowledge regarding the physiology and metabolism of women of childbearing age
  • a continuing desire to base repeat studies on former (male) study populations, and
  • tight research budgets that enabled inclusion of men but not women

Today, the almost universal inclusion of women in clinical trials might give the impression that things have improved markedly, but there’s plenty of problems still operating under the radar. A 2017 meta-analysis of 2,742 case reports showed a “statistically significant gender bias against female case reports,” while the Society for Women’s Health notes that the richest charities aren’t pushing for the inclusion of more women in medical research and that only 3% of grant proposals measured sex differences.

Ultimately, these biases exist due to polarizing assumptions of equality and inequality. On the one hand, researchers have long entertained the assumption that men and women suffer from the same symptoms and similar disease risk factors. Many clinical trials on men carry the assumption that the findings can be equally applied to women.

Despite this, those trials that compare the effects of drugs and treatments between men and women continue to highlight marked differences in the way women metabolize drugs and respond to treatments. Thus, the assumption of equality puts women at risk, not only reducing disease treatment efficacy but also risking exposure to unforeseen adverse side effects.

There’s also the valid point that men and women (as a whole) differ in environmentally and culturally influenced risk behaviors and exposures, and perhaps in their varied perception of symptoms. These are all valid concerns when it comes to clinical trials, but the biomedical model that governs most medical and clinical research tends to brush over this consideration—men and women are simply biological entities separated by hormonal and muscular variations.

At the other end of the spectrum, assumed inequalities occur when physicians consider women’s complaints to be less severe than men’s, due to the cultural notions of male stoicism and the fact that men have a lower average life expectancy and higher rates of mortality. This is reinforced by more frequent research into male-centric chronic diseases, which solidifies the notion that men are more “at risk.” This assumption contradicts the fact that women have higher rates of non-fatal chronic conditions which seriously impact their quality of life, particularly during those “additional” years when they’ve statistically outlived their male counterparts.

Consequences of Systemic Assumptions

The repercussions of this long-standing sex bias in the research realm are sneaky but far-reaching. For starters, larger proportions of women are diagnosed as having “non-specific symptoms and signs,” perhaps reflecting a disease classification system more suited to men than women. These same women might actually be suffering from a fully identifiable illness, but practitioners fail to diagnose it, due at least in part to traditionally male-based diagnostic criteria or to female-centric complaints that aren’t highlighted or even understood by historically (predominantly) male-based research. As a result, many women may receive no or improper treatment of their unidentified disease, something that can be frustrating at best and downright dangerous at worst.

Next, despite the fact that primary healthcare is used more by women than men, research indicates that short-stay and emergency hospital services may be more accessible to men. In one study of patients with the same ultimate diagnosis, women waited longer in emergency rooms and were admitted less often.

Then there’s the issue of incorrect drug dosages arising from insufficient trials on women. Eight of the ten prescription drugs that were withdrawn since 1997 posed greater health risks for women than men. Half of those drugs were withdrawn not because more women took them than men, but because their effects on women weren’t well known prior to FDA approval. For example, antihistamines Seldane and Hismanal and gastroprokinetic Propulsid “can in some circumstances prolong the interval between the heart muscle’s contractions and induce…a potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmia. Women have a higher incremental risk of suffering an arrhythmia after taking these drugs than do men probably because (1) the interval between heart muscle contractions is naturally longer for women than for men and (2) male sex hormones moderate the heart muscle’s sensitivity to these drugs.”

At a less morbid level, the FDA recently reduced female doses of Ambien, a common sleeping aid by half. Ambien and similar products had been on market shelves for years, but it wasn’t until the FDA completed tests on a new sleeping aid, Intermezzo, that they realized women metabolized the active ingredient much more slowly than men. Up until that point, it was assumed that women had the same response to the drug as men, and therefore that the recommended dosages should also be the same.

Because of lingering research bias, I’d say women probably have ample (more) reason to be more skeptical of pharmaceutical recommendations. 

Gender Bias In Literature and Practice

Coronary Heart Disease

Despite the fact that coronary heart disease is very much a disease of both genders, its role in female mortality rates is arguably under-appreciated. Women with coronary heart disease tend to have worse outcomes than their male counterparts, and they generally receive less evidence-based treatment than men with CHD.

A 2014 study that examined access to care for 1123 admitted patients exhibiting coronary symptoms found that men were more likely to receive faster care compared to women. Researchers also observed that, when women were anxious, doctors tended to underplay the severity of their condition, while anxious men were still admitted quickly. Even more interestingly, both men and women with “feminine character traits” were less likely to receive timely care than those with masculine traits.

Statins and NSAIDs

In a review of 27 trials of statin use for CHD and 25 trials of NSAIDs for osteoarthritic pain, the two drugs showed a huge difference in inclusion of women. While NSAID trials reflected the population in which they were used, only 16% of women were included in trials despite 45% of statin users being female.

These statistics become even more alarming when we consider the fact that women are often more at risk of adverse side effects from statin use than men. Elderly women, for example, face a higher risk of developing muscular disorders following statin use, while postmenopausal women are at an increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus from statin use. 

Animal Studies

This is where things really get interesting. Many specialists now theorize that the high rate of adverse drug reactions in women may stem from biomedical research at its earliest stages—animal trials.

While over half of NIH-funded clinical research participants are women these days, the same progression in recognizing gender bias has not been reflected in animal research. Women have more strokes than men, but only 38% of animal studies on stroke used females. Many thyroid illnesses are up to ten times more prevalent in women, yet only 52% of animal trials used females. And studies that use mice and other rodents to test new drugs typically use only males, despite there being marked differences between the way men and women absorb and process drugs.

There’s plenty more where that came from. A 2011 review of gender bias in research on animals in 10 biological fields found that male bias was present in eight disciplines and most prominent in neuroscience, where male studies outnumber female by 5.5 to 1. According to researchers, in recent years male bias in human studies has declined while increasing in animal studies, and this doesn’t bode well for the safe development of drugs and disease treatments further down the line. This preponderance of males in animal research unfortunately runs the risk of obscuring key gender differences in clinical studies, preventing reproducibility in human studies, and is especially concerning given women experience higher rates of adverse drug reactions than do men.

Some Final Thoughts…

Clearly, there’s much that still needs to be addressed regarding gender inequalities in the medical research world, but we’ve thankfully come a long way from the days of “hysteria.” Women can now participate in phase one, two and three clinical trials, and the NIH continues to roll out legislation and training to ensure researchers don’t overlook or underplay the importance of including women in their trials. And in the animal research sector, the NIH has now enacted policies requiring a balance of genders in all future trial applications, unless sex-specific inclusion is unwarranted.

Unfortunately, however, I don’t think it’s as simple as merely dishing out pro-female policies left right and center. As this opinion piece points out, “modifying experiments to include both males and females costs money and requires a duplication of time and effort—time that researchers might not have to spare or that might be better spent conducting other research—that is rarely practical or scientifically warranted.” Being required to include females in a study where it’s unwarranted might simply increase variability and render the study findings useless. That said, I also understand how “unwarranted” might not always be as clear-cut as anyone would like to assume.

Still, a better approach may be to prioritize funding for research where analyzing differences between the sexes promises to provide substantiated benefit—and opening the conversation more for defining that “benefit.” Providing the necessary funding for female or mixed-gender studies should ensure that scientists no longer have reason to exclude women from trials. And mandating disclosure when a study uses only male or female animals in the title should improve transparency and assist drug and treatment approval processes.

Thanks for reading folks. What say you? Are there issues and/or solutions you’d add to the mix? I’d love to hear your thoughts. 

The post Gender Bias in Medical Research: How It Operates and Why It Matters appeared first on Mark's Daily Apple.



from Mark's Daily Apple http://ift.tt/2yq4YiE

Day in the Life (3 Years, 3 Months) + VISA Gift Card Giveaway

This post is sponsored by Organic Stevia In The Raw® and SheKnows Media.

I can’t believe my sweet baby is growing into a little boy so quickly. I’m so glad that I’ve documented so many of our adventures together on CNC to see how he’s changed (so much) over the weeks and months. This “day in the life” recap is from a random Friday a couple of weeks ago, and Qman and I had quite the nice morning together. He’s such a cool kid! 🙂

Quinn and I were up and at ’em before the sun. The little dude used to sleep until his alarm clock turned green at 7:00 AM, but, apparently, he’s over it. When he’s ready to get out of bed and “go downstairs,” there’s no stopping him, which means I also start my day. It’s still dark outside, so I definitely need some coffee.

Now that fall is in full swing, I’m obsessed with all things pumpkin (obviously). I recently started making a super easy Iced Pumpkin Spice Latte to take with me when I’m on-the-go in the morning. I’m often rushing out the door with Qman, trying to get him to school on time, so I love this grab-and-go option. (It’s also great for those of you who are trying seed cycling to balance hormones since it has ground flax in it!)

On-the-Go Iced Pumpkin Spice Latte

Ingredients:

  • 2 shots of espresso (or strong coffee)
  • 1 cup unsweetened almond milk
  • 2 tbsp canned pumpkin
  • 1 tbsp ground flax
  • 1 packet Organic Stevia In The Raw®
  • cinnamon to taste
  • handful of ice

Directions: Brew espresso (or super strong coffee) and then transfer to a shaker bottle. Add almond milk, pumpkin, ground flax, Organic Stevia In The Raw®, and cinnamon. Shake like crazy, add ice, and drink immediately. It’s as easy as that!

Combine above ingredients and leave in the fridge overnight for a true grab-and-go morning beverage! Adding half of a scoop of vanilla protein powder is also quite delicious! 🙂

The addition of Organic Stevia In The Raw® adds just the right amount of sweetness to my Iced Pumpkin Spice Latte without a ton of calories. Each packet is only three calories, but provides the sweetening equivalence of two teaspoons of sugar, which contains 32 calories. Available in convenient packets, Organic Stevia In The Raw® perfect for sweetening beverages (hot or cold) or sprinkling on cereal or fruit. Want to try Organic Stevia In The Raw® for yourself? Here’s a coupon and retailers where it’s sold. You can also buy it online!

With Iced Pumpkin Spice Latte in hand, I immediately grab my laptop from my office. I bring it downstairs and stand at the kitchen counter, which is such a bad habit, but I need to respond to some time-sensitive emails. Mal just left the house to take Murphy for a walk and Quinn is watching The Octonauts, so I have about 10-15 minutes to get them done.

When Mal and Murphy return home, I pack up my computer and start making breakfast for Quinn and myself. Mal says goodbye and leaves for school. Once breakfast is finished, I head into the living room to let Quinn know it’s ready, but here’s nowhere to be found. He’s hiding from the “Mumma Monster,” who tickles him like crazy when she finds him under the blankets. Haha!

After that, we eat breakfast at the kitchen counter and then spend the rest of the morning getting ourselves ready for a “gym day.” Qman loves everything about gym days – the kids, spending time with Mumma (and Dada when he comes), and, of course, the donuts from Coffee Shack afterward. Now that he’s back at preschool full-time, we only have gym days on Saturday mornings. Quinn’s questions about “gym days” were really starting to tug at my heart strings (so much mom guilt), so I decided to keep him home, so we could have a special day together.

On the way to the gym, I realized I totally forgot to grab wipes. I used them right before we left the house and left them on the kitchen counter, so we swung by CVS to buy some. As you can see, Quinn was ALL about the automatic doors. He said, “it’s magic” as he opened his arms wide! 🙂

At CrossFit, Qman played with his friends while I worked out for an hour. The workout was a tough one! I mean, any workout with 10 rounds is going to be challenging, right? And this one really started to hurt at round 7 or so. Yowsahs – but I survived!

After CrossFit, we headed straight to Coffee Shack for iced coffee (for me) and donuts with friends. Coffee Shack was just about out of donuts, so, instead of his favorite, go-to Honey Dip, Quinn picked a Chocolate Coconut, which is my favorite kind of donut. I managed to snag a bite, but then got caught up in a conversation with my friend.

When it was time for her and her kids to leave, Quinn must have thought we were leaving too because he got up and threw away more than half of the donut. Oh, the horror! I sooooo wanted another bite. I asked Quinn why he threw away the donut, and he said he was full. Haha! The whole thing was so cute, but, seriously, who throws away a perfectly good Chocolate Coconut donut!?

After Coffee Shack, Quinn and I made a quick pit-stop at Target to buy a present for one of his friend’s birthday parties. We, of course, made time to see all of the “creepy” Halloween decorations.

Our final stop of the morning was a hair cut, which Qman needy badly. He was getting so shaggy!

He was really well-behaved during the haircut, so he got an awesome prize (huge bouncy ball) at the end.

After our morning adventures, we headed home for lunch and nap time. Even though we mostly just ran errands, I really enjoyed our time together. Qman is talking so much nowadays, so hanging out was such a difference experience even compared to a few months ago. He’s becoming such a little person with his own thoughts, ideas, and ridiculous humor (he’s so funny), and I love watching him grow.

Giveaway time!

Comment below for a chance to win a $100 Visa gift card!

How do you enjoy your morning coffee or tea? 

Entry Instructions: No duplicate comments. You may receive (2) total entries by selecting from the following entry methods:

  1. Leave a comment in response to the sweepstakes prompt on this post
  2. Tweet (public message) about this promotion; including exactly the following unique term in your tweet message: “#SweepstakesEntry”; and leave the URL to that tweet in a comment on this post
  3. Blog about this promotion, including a disclosure that you are receiving a sweepstakes entry in exchange for writing the blog post, and leave the URL to that post in a comment on this post
  4. For those with no Twitter or blog, read the official rules to learn about an alternate form of entry.

This giveaway is open to US Residents age 18 or older (or nineteen (19) years of age or older in Alabama and Nebraska). Winners will be selected via random draw, and will be notified by e-mail. The notification email will come directly from BlogHer via the sweeps@blogher email address. You will have 2 business days to respond; otherwise a new winner will be selected. The Official Rules are available here. This sweepstakes runs from 10/16/17-12/24/17.

The post Day in the Life (3 Years, 3 Months) + VISA Gift Card Giveaway appeared first on Carrots 'N' Cake.



from Carrots 'N' Cake http://ift.tt/2yq2h0w

Wedding: The Ceremony

All of our photos were taken by Sarah Cramer Shields of Cramer Photo. Follow her online and on Instagram

The ceremony is always my favorite part of a wedding. I love the charged air, the formality, and all the talk about love.

Just as the ceremony began, the sun was setting and golden rays were coming through the trees. We had the world’s most perfect crisp, sunny weather.

I walked in to Make You Feel My Love by Adele. I just love the piano introduction and the romantic lyrics of devotion. We waited 26 seconds (<– a coincidence) for Adele to begin singing to open the doors for a dramatic entrance before leaving the Carriage House.  

The first look!

I just love this photo so much – our faces, the sun, my shoe peek, my bouquet, Mazen’s proud smile.

Kiss for mommy!

Our ceremony was emotional, and I’ve been told that there were tears in the eyes of most of those present.

Our minster, Rev. Bhagavan Metro, did a beautiful job with our ceremony. While we wrote most of it ourselves, including passages on love and marriage and our vows, he did a minster’s address that he personalized with our own words. We filled out a questionnaire before so he could get to know us and he used our responses in his address. When I heard him share the reasons why we fell in love, what marriage meant to us, and why we chose each other, in our own words, I started to ugly cry. It was so surprisingly beautiful that I couldn’t keep it together!

The sweetest part of the ceremony for me was our vow exchange. We decided on a format so our vows would mirror each other, and we opened and closed with the same lines. The middle part was open ended and we each wrote about four lines. I think everyone in the garden, myself included, shed a tear when Thomas spoke about Mazen and struggled to hold back emotion. We both cracked jokes that got a good laugh out of the crowd too. I have videos of us reading our vows, and I’ve watched them 100 times already and tear up every time!

He had me laughing through tears! <3

We walked out to Israel Kamakawiwo’s Somewhere Over The Rainbow, a nod to my childhood favorite and a fun beat to walk out to!

Just married!

The post Wedding: The Ceremony appeared first on Kath Eats Real Food.



from Kath Eats Real Food http://ift.tt/2yqhZ9z

Follow Me on Brooks Women Instagram Stories

Heyyyy, guys! I’m taking over the Brooks Women’s Instagram Stories (@brookswomen) all day tomorrow, Wednesday, October 18th. Follow along to see my favorite running workout of the moment and how I fuel for it!

Wearing: Brooks Ghost Crop  (don’t show sweat AT ALL) // Levitate

 

The post Follow Me on Brooks Women Instagram Stories appeared first on Carrots 'N' Cake.



from Carrots 'N' Cake http://ift.tt/2xMsFSP

Best Pumpkins For Your Kitchen

It’s that time of year where pumpkins are everywhere you look. But they are useful for so much more than just your Halloween Jack-O-Lantern! There are many varieties of pumpkins and each type is good… Read more →



from The Gracious Pantry http://ift.tt/2gLSCYh

Episode 375 – Mark Bell – Intelligent Workouts, and The War on Carbs

The Good Kitchen banner
Sleepcocktails_banner_728x90_LeftThis episode of The Paleo Solution podcast we have my friend Mark Bell joining us. Mark is a former top level competitive powerlifter, owner of Super Training Gym, and a big, strong, jacked, and knowledgeable guy when it comes to training.
Listen in as we chat about working out intelligently, slow lifting, diet and The War on Carbs, and more!


Download Episode Here (MP3)

Websites:
http://ift.tt/1FAoV1T
http://ift.tt/2goFjQI

Twitter: @MarkSmellyBell
Instagram: MarkSmellyBell

30 Day Guide to the Paleo Diet

Want some extra help? Have you been trying Paleo for a while but have questions or aren’t sure what the right exercise program is for you? Or maybe you just want a 30-day meal plan and shopping list to make things easier? We’ve created a getting started guide to help you through your first 30 days.

Buy the book

 

Wired-to-Eat-RenderDon’t forget, Wired to Eat is now available!

Amazon, Barnes & Noble, IndieBound, iBooks



from The Paleo Diet http://ift.tt/2kTLugV